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Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1843-1990, bulk, 1884-1909

Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1843-1990, bulk, 1884-1909

Kurtz, Charles M. (Charles McMeen), 1855-1909

Museum director, Editor, Collector, Dealer, Arts administrator

Collection Information

Size: 27.6 linear feet

Summary: Primarily correspondence and printed material, but also diaries, legal and financial material, notes and writings, photographs, and works of art reflect Kurtz's involvement with the National Academy of Design, the art departments of the Southern, World's Columbian, St. Louis, International Universal (Paris), and Louisiana Purchase Expositions, the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, and his activities as a collector and private dealer.

Biographical material consists of reminiscences, certificates, and obituaries. There is approximately 15 feet of professional and personal correspondence, dated 1843-1990. Of particular interest is correspondence with artists: Du Bois F. Hasbrouck, Robert Macaulay Stephenson and Patty Thum; administrators: Luigi Palma di Cesnola, Sara Hallowell, Halsey C. Ives and Charles Ward Rhodes; dealers: Samuel P. Avery, Alexander Reid, Charles Sedelmeyer; collectors: Thomas B. Clarke, John Wanamaker; organizations: American Art Association, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts; family and friends, notably his wife, Julia Stephenson Kurtz, father, D.B. Kurtz and the Starkweather family.

Requests for submissions of works of art are forms, and a few letters, returned by artists describing the works they wish to exhibit for the Southern Exposition, 1886, the St. Louis Expositions, 1893-1897, and exhibits of the Glasgow School at St. Louis, 1895, and at the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, 1905. Forms are arranged by exposition, and thereunder alphabetically by artist.

Legal and financial material consists of agreements, a will, inventories and price lists of the Kurtz's collection, ledgers, 1877-1886, and lists of art related expenses, 1884-1919.

5 volume of diaries, March - May 1894, January-December 1897, February 1899, March 1899, and January-March 1901 contain detailed entries regarding travels, daily activities, art related events, and expenses. The February 1899 volume describes a sale of paintings from Thomas Benedict Clarke's collection.

Notes and writings include drafts of "Art: Its Evolution, Influence and Mission," lecture notes, writings on theory, aesthetics, criticism, collecting, artists and other topics, short stories, comic operas and other compositions, address books, and exposition gallery plans. Twelve volumes of scrapbooks, 1878-1909, contain clippings of Kurtz's columns from the New York Star, Tribune and other papers, and clippings and printed material regarding the Southern and St. Louis Expositions, and the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy, and other art related clippings.

Extensive printed material includes catalogs for various exhibitions, mostly from New York galleries; catalogs for the sale of Kurtz's collection, 1910; clippings; catalogs and other material relating to the Southern, World's Columbian, St. Louis and Louisiana Purchase Expositions; calling cards; brochures; invitations; and programs.

Photographs are of Kurtz, his wife, and others, paintings in his collection, exposition buildings and installations. Some of the photographs were copied from glass plate negatives received with the collection.

Material which was not microfilmed includes a D.B. and E.L. Kurtz letterpress book, 1877-1887; financial material, including cancelled checks and stubs, and an inventory of the library of Kathrine Woodford Simpson; miscellaneous writings by others; and printed material, including non-art related exposition publications, proof sheets for catalogs, National Academy Notes (1889) and Academy Notes, v.1-v.4 (1905-1909), reproductions of works of art, menus, including one for a dinner for Edwin Austin Abbey with a signed photogravure by Abbey and autographs of 19 attendees including James Smillie, Childe Hassam, and Herbert Vos (with caricature), 1902, and other miscellaneous printed matter.

Also, photographs of works of art, and a series of 12 photographs of young men and women taken by Guglielmo Pluschow; and art work, circa 1876-1902, measuring 23 x 35.2 cm or smaller, including sketches, ink illustrations for Academy Notes, a lithograph by Robert J. Wickenden (signed), an engraving, 6 etchings, including 3 etched invitations to gallery openings of Mary Curtis Richardson, Benoni Irwin and others, a portrait of a man by Jay Hambidge (tempera on paper), and 1 landscape painting (oil on canvas).

Biographical/Historical Note

Charles M. Kurtz (1855-1909) was an arts administrator, museum director, collector, private dealer, and editor. Attended Washington & Jefferson College and the National Academy of Design. Began his career as the editor of National Academy of Design's "National Academy Notes," 1881-1889, American Art Union Magazine (1884), and New York Daily Star (1889). He was Director of the Art Department, Southern Exposition (Louisville, Kentucky.), 1883-1886; Assistant Chief, Depepartment of Fine Arts, World's Columbian Exposition; Director, Art Depepartment, St. Louis Exposition & Music Hall Association, 1894-1899 (where he introduced the Glasgow school of painting, a group of Scottish artists and the Danish School in 1895); Assssistant Director of Fine Arts, U.S. Commission to the International Universal Exposition, Paris, 1900; and Asst. Chief, Depepartment. of Fine Arts, Louisiana Purchase Exposition, 1904. From 1905-1909, Kurtz was director of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy (later the Albright Art Gallery), and editor of Academy Notes.

Provenance

Donated 1988-1991 by Isabel Kurtz, Charles Kurtz's daughter. The painting diary on reel 4921 was lent for microfilming by the Yale Center for Britsh Art in 1994. For many years, the Kurtz Papers were thought to have been destroyed in a fire. Isabel Kurtz, a school teacher who lived with her older sister in Buffalo, New York, was vague when initially approached about her father's papers by Archives Regional Director, Robert Brown in the mid-1980s. However upon her death in 1991, her will revealed that the papers were indeed in her house in Buffalo and the bulk of them were bequeathed to the Archives of American Art. Paintings and a diary in which Kurtz has written a history of the Glasgow School were given to the Yale Center for British Art. That diary has subsequently been duplicated on microfilm and is now also available in the Archives (reel 4912). Scorch marks on some of the papers and also on the paintings given to Yale suggest that there was indeed a fire. The material that was not bequeathed to the Archives included duplicates of printed documents along with books from the Kurtz library and a coin collection, all of which were dispersed in an estate auction that was held in Buffalo in 1991.

Related Materials

Also in the Archives of American Art is Kurtz's Glasgow painting diary which was lent for microfilming (reel 4912). This diary is only available on microfilm.

Location of Originals

  • Glasgow painting diary, Microfilm reel 4912: Original in the Yale Center for British Art New Haven, Connecticut.

A Finding Aid to the Charles M. Kurtz Papers,
1843-1990
,
bulk 1884-1909
, in the Archives of American Art
AAA.kurtchar
Biographical Note
Charles M. Kurtz's name is known to many scholars and students of American art history. To some he is important for his critical writings, others are interested in his management of exhibitions for the Art Union and the American Art Association. Many are aware of him because of his publication of
National Academy Notes
, which continued for nine years. Still others are familiar with Kurtz in his role as an art administrator for late 19th century art exhibitions like those at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago and the St. Louis Fair, or for his accomplishments as the first director of the Albright Gallery in Buffalo, New York. Sometimes researchers have become familiar with his name through the sale catalogue for his considerable collection, which was sold at auction after his death in 1909. His career, which encompassed the last quarter of the nineteenth century and the first decade of the twentieth century, touched on virtually every aspect of art in America during that period.
Born in 1853 to Davis Brook Kurtz (1826-1906), an attorney, and Julia Wilder, Charles Kurtz enjoyed a genteel upbringing. The Kurtz family originated in Darmstadt, Germany, and migrated to America in the eighteenth century. D.B. Kurtz, a leading member of the Lawrence County bar, was also a vice-president of the National Bank of Lawrence County, Pennsylvania. As a local representative of many important railroad and business interests, he accumulated assets estimated at one million dollars by the time of his death, just three years before that of his son, Charles, the eldest of his five children. Unlike his brothers Louis, who also became an attorney, and Edward, a professor at Columbia University, Charles eschewed a professional career to enter the art world, as did his sisters Emily, an artist, and Catherine, a musician.
After his graduation from Washington and Jefferson College in Washington, Pennsylvania, Kurtz visited the Centennial Exposition, held in 1876 in Philadelphia, before coming to New York to study art at the National Academy of Design. These two activities foreshadowed the direction that his career would eventually take. As the chronology indicates, his early efforts revolve around writing for a variety of publications, most notably, his own
National Academy Notes
. In 1881 he took what was to be the first of many trips abroad to survey the art scene in Europe. Later in his career, his fascination with foreign art and his own entrepeneurial interests led him to become an outspoken opponent of tariffs on imported art.
Kurtz's personal life changed significantly in 1884 when he met Julia Stephenson, a physician's daughter and fledging art student from Harrodsburg, Kentucky. Throughout their courtship and after their marriage the couple was frequently separated. Consequently, they wrote lengthy letters which document not only their personal relationship but also Kurtz's aspirations and activities in the art world.
With his appointment as one of Halsey C. Ives's (1847-1911) chief assistants of the Fine Arts Department of the World's Columbian Exposition in 1891, Charles Kurtz's career achieved international stature. Among the most notable European artists he introduced into this country through circulating exhibitions were the Glasgow School, the Danish School, the Hungarian artist, Mihaly Munkacsy, and the subject of his final exhibition, the Spanish artist, Sorolla.
Throughout his life, Kurtz was plagued by health problems and, in 1899, illness forced him to resign as Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States for the Paris Exposition of 1900. Throughout the following decade, his work was increasingly interrupted by ill health. His death in 1909 at the age of 54, while sudden, was not entirely unexpected. However it most certainly cut short a cosmopolitan career that encompassed virtually every aspect of the art world and the pertinent issues of the day.
Kurtz is remembered for his editorial work with the National Academy of Design; as Art Director for the Southern Exposition, 1883-1886, and the St. Louis Exposition, 1894-1899 (where he introduced the Glasgow School of Painting); and as Assistant Chief/Director for the World's Columbian Exposition, the 1900 Paris Exposition, and the 1904 Louisiana Purchase Exposition. He was also director of the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy.
1855
Charles McMeen Kurtz born
1876
receives B.S. degree from Washington and Jefferson College, Washington, Pennsylvania
1876-78
studies at the National Academy of Design, N.Y. with Lemuel Wilmarth and William Morgan; writes a column, "New York Letters," for
The Courant
published in New Castle, Pennsylvania
1878
edits a small daily paper published during a "National Camp Meeting for the promotion of Holiness" held that summer in New Castle, Pa.; its critical stance resulted in his public denouncement and earned him a reputation as a journalist in western Pennsylvania; receives M.A. from Washington and Jefferson College
1878-79
becomes the local editor of
The Guardian
of New Castle
1879
publishes
The Daily Reporter
, a financial success
1881
publishes the first issue of
National Academy Notes
; travels in Europe, spending time in England, Holland, Belgium, Germany, Switzerland, Italy and France (Paris)
1881-82
prepares
Illustrated Notes
for Metropolitan Museum of Art exhibition
1882
writes "Art Notes" in
The New York Tribune
and resigns Dec. 23rd
1882-83
accepts position to write for
Music and Drama
, a new daily paper
1883
becomes the general manager of the American Art Union; exhibits a large collection of Art Union paintings in Buffalo, N.Y. and Louisville, Ky., where they became part of the Southern Exposition's first great art display
1883-86
accepts offer to become Director of the Art Department, Southern Exposition, Louisville, Kentucky
1884
edits
Art Union
magazine until December; applies for position to head the Art Department of the New Orleans World's Fair in September
1884-86
accepts a position offered by the American Art Association; terminates uncongenial relationship in March, 1886
1885
writes catalogues for the sale of the George Seney Collection and for the Watts exhibition at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York; October 1, marries Julia Stephenson (1861-1931), daughter of Dr. A. T. Stephenson of Harrodsburg, Kentucky; they had two daughters who survived them: Julia Wilder Kurtz (1889-1977), and Isabella Starkweather Kurtz (1901-1991); another daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz (1886-1897), predeceased them
1886
terminates employment with the Art Association; daughter, Elizabeth Stephenson Kurtz, born
1886-87
manages the circulation of Mihaly Munkacsy's
Christ Before Pilot
for Charles Sedelmeyer to American venues: New York, Boston, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Kansas City, Minneapolis, Saint Paul, Nashville, Phildelphia, Indianapolis; tour generates $90,000 in ticket receipts
1889-91
February 24, appointed art critic ("Art Notes") and book reviewer for
New York Daily Star
; later literary and art editor of the
Sunday Star
1890
writes for the Sunday edition
The Press
, a New York paper
1891
writes for
The World
; art editor for
The New York Recorder
; contributes to the
New York Truth
1891-93
contributes to
Chicago Evening Post
; writes artist biographies for
The Chicago Graphic
, a regional magazine; appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Fine Arts of the World's Columbian Exposition
1894
contributes column, "Art at the Exposition" to
St. Louis Life
1895
tours Denmark, Scotland, and France during the summer on behalf of the St. Louis Exposition
1894-99
appointed Director of the Art Department of the St. Louis Annual Exposition
1896
elected member of The Japan Society, London
1897
daughter, Elizabeth (Daisy), dies
1898
receives a diploma and medal "in recognition of valuable services in connection with the Fine Arts Exhibit" from the directors of the Trans-Mississippi International Exposition, Omaha
1899
appointed Assistant Director of Fine Arts for the United States Commission to the Paris Exposition of 1900; resigned in July due to ill health
1901-04
appointed Assistant Chief of the Department of Art of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, August
1901
daughter, Isabella Starkweather Kurtz, born
1902
receives honorary Ph.D from Washington and Jefferson College "in recognition of distinguished ability and services as an art critic and writer"
1905
receives the cross of the Order of Merit from Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria; appointed Director, Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and Albright Art Gallery, Buffalo, New York, in January; exhibits Glasgow paintings at Albright Art Gallery from November until the following April
1906
writes
Academy Notes
, a bulletin pubished by the Buffalo Fine Arts Academy and the Albright Art Gallery; father, D.B. Kurtz, dies in Newcastle, Pennsylvania
1907
accused of importing German pictures free of duty for exhibition purposes and then selling some for profit
1908
Honorary Doctor of Philosophy degree conferred by Washington and Jefferson College
1909
Charles M. Kurtz dies in Buffalo, New York on March 21
1910
Sale of the private collection of Charles M. Kurtz at auction, Fifth Avenue Art Galleries, February 24-25
1931
Widow, Julia Stephenson Kurtz dies October 30
1977
Daughter, Julia Wilder Kurtz, dies
1991
Daughter, Isabel Starkweather Kurtz, dies in Buffalo, N.Y.; remaining Charles M. Kurtz Papers bequeathed to the Archives of American Art and the National Academy of Design, New York
Arrangement
The collection is organized into twelve series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.
Series 1: Biographical Information, 1885-1931, undated
Series 2: Correspondence, 1843-1940, undated
Series 3: Circulars/Requests for Submissions of Works of Art, 1886-1905
Series 4: Legal Records, 1881-1928
Series 5: Financial Records, 1870-1989, undated
Series 6: Diaries, 1894-1901
Series 7: Notes and Writings, 1872-1980, undated
Series 8: Scrapbooks, 1878-1909
Series 9: Printed Material, 1873-1990, undated
Series 10: Photographs, 1898-1990
Series 11: Photographs of Works of Art, undated
Series 12: Miscellany, undated
Provenance
Donated 1988-1991 by Isabel Kurtz, Charles Kurtz's daughter. The painting diary on reel 4921 was lent for microfilming by the Yale Center for Britsh Art in 1994. For many years, the Kurtz Papers were thought to have been destroyed in a fire. Isabel Kurtz, a school teacher who lived with her older sister in Buffalo, New York, was vague when initially approached about her father's papers by Archives Regional Director, Robert Brown in the mid-1980s. However upon her death in 1991, her will revealed that the papers were indeed in her house in Buffalo and the bulk of them were bequeathed to the Archives of American Art. Paintings and a diary in which Kurtz has written a history of the Glasgow School were given to the Yale Center for British Art. That diary has subsequently been duplicated on microfilm and is now also available in the Archives (reel 4912). Scorch marks on some of the papers and also on the paintings given to Yale suggest that there was indeed a fire. The material that was not bequeathed to the Archives included duplicates of printed documents along with books from the Kurtz library and a coin collection, all of which were dispersed in an estate auction that was held in Buffalo in 1991.
Location of Originals
  • Glasgow painting diary, Microfilm reel 4912: Original in the Yale Center for British Art New Haven, Connecticut.
Processing Information
The collection was processed and the finding aid written by Arleen Pancza-Graham in 1996. The finding aid was modified during EAD conversion by Stephanie Ashley in 2002. Glass plate negatives were re-housed in 2015 with a grant provided by the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund.

Additional Forms Available

Most of the collection has been filmed on microfilm reels 4804-4826. The microfilm is available at Archives of American Art offices and through interlibrary loan.

Restrictions on Access

Use of original papers requires an appointment and is limited to the Archives' Washington, D.C., Research Center. Contact Reference Services for more information.

Restrictions on Use

Glasgow painting diary, Microfilm reel 4912: Authorization to publish, quote, or reproduce must be obtained from: Yale Center for British Art, 1080 Chapel St., Box 2120 Yale Station, New Haven, Connecticut 06520.

How to Cite This Collection

Charles M. Kurtz papers, 1843-1990, bulk, 1884-1909. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

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