Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers, 1864-2002

A Finding Aid to the Solon H. Borglum and Borglum Family Papers, 1864-2002, in the Archives of American Art, by Erin Corley

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Funding for the processing and digitization of this collection was provided by the Terra Foundation for American Art.

Table of Contents:

Biographical Information

Solon Hannibal Borglum was born in Ogden, Utah in 1868. His father Jens (James) Borglum and wife Ida emigrated to America in 1864, as Mormon converts. James took a second wife Christina who was the mother of Solon and his older brother John Gutzon de la Mothe. Christina left the family after just a few years, when James left the Mormon Church. James and Ida raised the large family, which included Solon, Gutzon, Miller, Arnold, August, Anna, Harriet, Theodora and Frank. Solon spent most of his childhood in Fremont, Nebraska, and in 1893 he became a ranch hand in Southern California. At this time he also developed an interest in art which he shared with his brother Gutzon, who was studying painting in Los Angeles.

From 1885 to 1893 Solon ran a ranch on his father's land in central Nebraska, but also took painting lessons from artist J. Laurie Wallace. After spending a short time at his brother's studio in Sierra Madre, and living as an artist in Santa Ana, he studied at the Cincinnati Art Academy under Louis T. Rebisso from 1895 to 1897. Solon then went to Paris where he met sculptor Augustus Saint-Gaudens who persuaded him to study sculpture at the Academie Julian. He studied there under Denys Puech and won numerous awards for works exhibited both in France and the United States. In 1898 Solon married Emma Vignal in Paris. They spent four months at the Crow Creek Reservation in South Dakota, an experience that greatly influenced his work. In 1901 Solon was elected to the National Sculpture Society, later becoming its vice president, and set up a studio in New York. Despite his success, such as winning the gold medal at the Art Palace at the 1904 World's Fair, confusions began between him and his brother Gutzon who decided to also become a sculptor. In 1906 he moved with his wife and children, Paul and Monica, to a farm in Connecticut called "Rocky Ranch." Artist Paul Manship became his student helper and lived with the family. Solon received commissions to do many monuments and memorials, but also continued to exhibit his work and participate in the local Silvermine Group of Artists.

From 1916 to 1917 Solon taught at the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design in New York and also developed ideas for an art textbook called Sound Construction, which he worked on with his student assistant Mildred Archer Nash. In 1918, he enlisted in the YMCA for overseas war work, attached to the Third and Fifth French Army. While there he was also the Director of Sculpture at the specially organized American Expeditionary Forces Art Training Center. When he returned home, he decided to establish the School of American Sculpture in New York City. He ran the school with great success, and gave many lectures on art and his experiences overseas until his sudden death after an appendectomy in January of 1922. His legacy was carried on by his wife Emma until her death in 1934, at which point his daughter Monica and her husband, A. Mervyn Davies, oversaw the exhibition of his artwork, and in 1974 published his biography Solon H. Borglum: "A Man Who Stands Alone".

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Overview of the Collection

Scope and Contents

The Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers date from 1864 to 2002 and measure 11.4 linear feet. The collection documents Solon Borglum's personal life and his career as a sculptor specializing in Western themes through biographical material, family and general correspondence, writings and notes, research for his biography, financial and business letters, printed material, photographs and artwork.

Biographical material contains documents providing information on the Borglum Family history as well as Solon's military service and memorial. Also found is a leather portfolio of ephemera kept by Emma Borglum. Family correspondence includes numerous letters between Solon and Emma and various members of their extended family. The letters discuss family events, everyday life, Solon's military service, and family history. General Correspondence pertains to Solon's career as an artist and includes his incoming and outgoing correspondence with galleries, foundries, patrons, fellow artists such as Augustus Saint-Gaudens, and others. Later correspondence from galleries, museums, foundries, historical societies, and other individuals and organizations, is addressed to his daughter Monica Borglum and concerns Solon's artwork and legacy after his death. Writings and notes include material written by Solon Borglum and material written by others. Solon's writings include project proposals as well as essays, lectures, and other notes on the topics of his own works of art, art and form, and his participation in World War I. Also found are Solon's diary, notebooks, and address books kept during the last five years of his life. Writings by others include writings by Emma and others about Solon Borglum, as well as guest books for the Silvermine Group of Artists.

Series five contains documents compiled by Monica Borglum Davies and her husband A. Mervyn Davies for a biography Solon Borglum. Included are their research files and notes as well as heavily edited drafts of book sections and draft manuscripts and notes. Financial and business records document Solon's professional career and legacy, including project contracts and financial proposals, account books, ledgers, receipts, and items regarding the Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund. Printed material contains items about Solon Borglum's career and artwork compiled by his daughter, Monica Davies, and includes exhibition catalogs, exhibition announcements, brochures, programs, clippings, reports, and other publications. Also included is the textbook Sound Construction.

This collection also contains numerous photographs, including Solon's personal and family photographs, and photographs of his artwork. Family and personal photographs consist of photos of Solon taken throughout his career, including his time in military service, photos of his family and friends, various studios and residences including Rocky Ranch, and of him and and Emma at the Crow Creek Reservation. Artwork is comprised of sketches Solon made for his sculptural works and for Sound Construction. Also found are sketches by Emma and Gutzon Borglum, including a sketch of Solon, and artwork by others such as artist Robert Fulton Logan.

Arrangement and Series Description

The collection is arranged into 9 series. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Subjects and Names

This collection is indexed in the online catalog of the Archives of American Art under the following index terms:

  • Borglum, Emma Vignal, 1866-1934
  • Borglum, Gutzon, 1867-1941
  • Davies, A. Mervyn (Alfred Mervyn)
  • Davies, Monica Borglum, 1903-
  • Sculptors--Connecticut--Wilton
  • Sculpture, American--United States
  • Sculpture--Study and teaching
  • Sketches
  • World War, 1914-1918


Most of the materials in the collection were originally loaned by the Borglum family between 1969-1975 and microfilmed. Much of the same material was later donated in several accretions between circa 1991-2004 by various family members David Borglum, Harriet M. Borglum, Alfred Davies, Harold Davies, Monica B. Davies, Linda Borglum Fry, and Gwynneth Kelly. In 1979 approximately 200 photographs were transferred from the Smithsonian American Art Museum Library to AAA, which had received them from Monica Borglum Davies.

Separated and Related Materials

A scrapbook of news clippings, other printed material, writings, and correspondence were loaned for microfilming in 1969 by Solon's daughter, Monica Borglum Davies. Originals were returned to Monica Borglum Davies and George Borglum after microfilming. Loaned material is available on reels N69-98 and 1054. Loaned material that was not later donated and merged is not described in this finding aid.

The Archives also holds several collections related to the Borglum family, including the Gutzon Borglum collection, available on microfilm only, reel 3056. This collection includes correspondence, printed material, and photographs. Originals reside at the San Antonio Museum of Art. Also found are the Gutzon Borglum letters to John A. Stewart (available on microfilm reel D8, frames 359-362) and the Harriet Collins Allen papers relating to Solon Borglum. The Library of Congress also holds papers of Solon Hannibal Borglum and is the primary repository of the papers of Gutzon Borglum.

How the Collection was Processed

The papers were originally microfilmed as loans on reels N69-98 and 1054. Most of the loans were lated donated by the family and merged with later gifts. All accretions were merged and the entire collection was fully processed, arranged, and described by Erin Corley in 2005 and digitized with funding provided by the Terra Foundation for American Art. Glass plate negatives were re-housed with a grant provided by the Smithsonian Collections Care and Preservation Fund.

How to Use the Collection

Restrictions on Use

The bulk of the collection has been digitized and is available online via AAA's website. Use of material not digitized requires an appointment. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

Ownership & Literary Rights

Solon Borglum and the Borglum family papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.

Available Formats

The papers of sculptor Solon Borglum and the Borglum Family were digitized in 2006 by the Archives of American Art, and total 6177 images.

Materials not digitized include a few certificates, writings and notes not authored by Solon but by others, Monica Borglum Davies research files for and drafts of the biography Solon H. Borglum, A Man Who Stands Alone, 1974, some routine financial materials, clippings and magazines, and photographs of artwork. Loaned portions of the collection, most of which was later donated, merged, digitized, are available on 35mm microfilm reels N69-98 and 1054 at Archives of American Art offices and for interlibrary loan.

How to Cite this Collection

Solon H. Borglum and Borglum family papers, 1864-2002. Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution.

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Detailed Description and Container Inventory

Series 1: Biographical Material, 1866, 1895-1922, undated
(Box 1, 13; 10 folders)

Biographical material includes citizenship papers for Solon's father, James Borglum, death certificates for two relatives, and other genealogical documents on the history of the Borglum Family. Also found are photographs, clippings, and other ephemera gathered in a leather portfolio by Emma Borglum. This series also contains items documenting Solon's role as Scoutmaster in Silvermine, as well as his service in World War I. Also found are written tributes and printed material for the Solon Borglum Memorials held at Saint Mark's in-the-Bouwerie and the National Sculpture Society. Folders are arranged chronologically by subject.

Box Folder
1 1 Declaration of Intention for Citizenship, James Borglum, 1866
1 2 Death Certificates for Harry and Dagmar Wilson, 1895-1896
1 3 Borglum Family History, 1896, undated
1 4-6 Emma Borglum Scrapbook/Porfolio, 1912, undated
(3 folders)
1 7 Silvermine Boy Scout Troop, 1912, 1914
1 8 Military Documents for Solon Borglum, 1917-1919
(See also Box 13, F1)
1 9 Solon Borglum Memorials, 1922
Box Folder
13 (sol) 1 Military Documents for Solon Borglum, 1917-1919
(See also Box 1, F8)

Series 2: Family Correspondence, 1885-1972, undated
(Box 1; 0.4 linear feet)

Family Correspondence includes numerous letters between Solon and his wife Emma and his children, Paul and Monica. Most of their correspondence is from 1918 through 1919 while Solon was in the military in France. There are also many letters to Monica from Emma during the period shortly after Solon's death. Also found are letters to Solon from his parents James and Ida; and letters to Emma from her parents Jean and Lydie Vignal. There are also many letters to Emma from her sister Lucy Vignal Borglum, who married Solon's brother August, and to Emma from her sister-in-law Elizabeth Vignal, who was married to Emma's brother Paul. Also included are numerous letters to Lucy Vignal Borglum from her parents. Most of the correspondence between the Vignals is in French. This series also contains other family correspondence including letters between Solon and his siblings, letters between Solon's brother August and other family members including several cousins, letters between Monica and Paul, Monica and her Aunt Harriet, and her cousin George Borglum, August Borglum's son. Much of this later correspondence discusses family history.

Box Folder
1 10-17 To wife Emma (and children) from Solon Borglum, 1907-1911, 1918-1919, undated
(8 folders)
1 18 To Solon from wife Emma, 1901-1910
1 19-21 To Solon from wife Emma and Children, 1914-1919, undated
(3 folders)
1 22 To Solon from parents James and Ida, 1897-1909, undated
1 23-26 To Monica Borglum from her mother Emma, 1922-1925, undated
(4 folders)
1 27 To Emma from sister Lucy Vignal Borglum, 1903-1913, undated
1 28 To Emma from sister-in-law Elizabeth Vignal, 1904-1923, undated
1 29 To Emma from parents Jean and Lydie Vignal, 1902-1918
1 30-33 To Lucy Vignal Borglum from parents Jean and Lydie Vignal, 1902-1907, undated
(4 folders)
1 34-38 Family Correspondence, 1885-1972, undated
(5 folders)

Series 3: General Correspondence, 1871-1989, undated
(Box 1-2; 1.0 linear foot)

This series includes Solon Borglum's incoming and outgoing professional correspondence. Materials dated after 1922 are Monica Borglum Davies' incoming correspondence regarding Solon's artwork and legacy. Solon's correspondence is with galleries and foundries, such as the Milch Gallery and Roman Bronze Works, concerning the sale or production of his artwork, and correspondence with people and organizations, such as Jane Wallace and Saint Mark's in-the-Bouwerie, concerning sculpture projects, and with other artists, including August Saint-Gaudens and Robert Fulton Logan. Also found is correspondence concerning the School of American Sculpture, both before and after Solon's death.

Materials addressed to Monica Borglum include letters from art galleries and museums, such as the Detroit Institute of Art, the Joslyn Art Museum, and the National Collection of Fine Arts at the Smithsonian Institution, concerning the sale or exhibition of Solon's artwork. Also included is correspondence with foundries concerning the production of Solon's sculptures, and with historical societies, individuals, and other organizations concerning the provenance, collection, or exhibition of his artwork. This series also includes correspondence from the Solon Borglum Memorial Fund and condolences to Monica on the deaths of Solon and Emma (in 1934).

Also found are calling cards, business cards, and envelopes that have been separated from their contents. This series also includes numerous notepads containing drafts of Solon's outgoing correspondence as well as drafts on loose pages.

Box Folder
1 39 American Art Foundry, 1925-1928
1 40 Collings, Ruth M., 1964-1983
1 41-44 Condolences, 1922, 1924
(4 folders)
1 45 Cooper Hewitt Museum of Design, 1969-1970
1 46 Detroit Institute of Art, 1953-1986
1 47 Gallaher, E. B., 1924-1926, undated
1 48 George F. Harding Museum, 1967-1982
1 49 Gorham Company, 1916-1926
1 50 Grand Central Art Galleries, 1925-1929
1 51 Hall, Wood, and Pound, 1908-1909
1 52 Hugenot-Thomas Paine Historical Association, 1974-1979
1 53 Ingersoll, Raymond V., circa 1919, 1925-1926
1 54 Joslyn Art Museum, 1958-1976
1 55 Knapp, Lamont P., 1950-1960, undated
1 56 Library of Congress, 1906, 1924, 1956, 1987
1 57 Logan, Robert Fulton, 1920-1921
1 58 Massachusetts Monumental Company, 1909-1910
1 59 Milch Galleries, 1920-1927
1 60-61 National Collection of Fine Arts, Smithsonian Institution, 1968-1973
(2 folders)
1 62 Nebraska State Historical Society, 1965-1975
1 63 Perham, Douglas and Constance, 1959-1969
1 64 Randolph-Macon Women's College, 1965
1 65-66 Requests for Copies of Sound Construction, 1924-1926
(2 folders)
1 67 Roman Bronze Works, 1907-1931
1 68 School of American Sculpture, 1920-1925
1 69 Saint-Gaudens, Augustus, 1904
1 70 Saint Mark's In-The-Bouwerie (Dr. William Norman Guthrie), 1917-1925, 1978
1 71 Solon Borglum Memorial Fund, 1922-1924
1 72 Tiffany and Co., 1911, 1925-1928
1 73 Vogel, Emily (Mimi), 1964-1966
1 74 Wallace, Jane, 1921
1 75-76 General Correspondence, 1871-1908
(2 folders)
Box Folder
2 1-13 General Correspondence, 1909-1989, undated
(13 folders)
2 14 Calling Cards and Business Cards, undated
(Not scanned)
2 15 Envelopes, 1888, 1903-1966, undated
2 16-17 Loose Drafts of Outgoing Correspondence, undated
(2 folders)
2 18-24 Notepads of Drafts of Outgoing Correspondence, 1905-1910, undated
(7 folders)

Series 4: Writings and Notes, 1871-1983, undated
(Box 2-3; 1.0 linear foot)

Writings and notes include those written by Solon Borglum and others. Writings and notes by Solon Borglum include project proposals for an Alexander Hamilton statue, the "Bells of History" project, and a sculpture only described as "The Grille." Also found are numerous essays by Solon and lecture notes on topics such as art, material and form, specific sculptural works, and his experiences in World War I. This series also includes Solon's notes on various subjects, including the founding of the School of American Sculpture and the Benjamin Franklin Monument project, and a diary with many sketches that Solon kept in 1918 during his military service. Similarly, Solon wrote in many notebooks during his time in the military and later career. The notebooks found here include personal thoughts, quotations, names and addresses, and sketches. Researchers will also find personal notes written in Solon's address books.

Writings and notes by others include Emma Borglum's recollections on the life of Solon and their experiences together at the Crow Creek Reservation. Additional recollections on Solon Borglum are written by his daughter Monica Davies and her friend Josephine Sofio. Also found in this subseries is a lecture on Jacob Leisler, the subject of a Borglum sculpture, prepared by Monica's husband, A. Mervyn Davies, and a notebook kept by Emma's brother, Paul Vignal. Of interest are address lists and guest books for the various meetings of the Silvermine Group of Artists. Items in this subseries have not been digitized.

The Writings and Notes series is arranged into 2 subseries:

4.1: Writings and Notes by Solon Borglum, 1914-1922, undated

Box Folder
2 25 Diary, 1917-1918
2 26 Loose Items From Diary, 1918-1919
2 27 Project Proposal, "Alexander Hamilton" sculpture, undated
(Partially scanned)
2 28-29 Project Proposal, "Bells of History," Tentative Plan, circa 1921
(2 folders; partially scanned)
2 30-32 Project Proposal, "Bells of History," Drafts and Notes, 1921
(3 folders; partially scanned)
2 33 Project Proposal, "The Grille," 1914
2 34 Essay, "The Duty of Art," undated
(Partially scanned)
2 35 Essay, "The Duty of Art," Notes, undated
(Not scanned)
2 36 Essay, "The Last Round-up," undated
2 37 Essay, "The Little Lady of the Dew," circa 1920
(Partially scanned)
2 38 Essay, "My Experience in the Great War," 1919
2 39 Essay, "The Province of a Sculptor," undated
2 40 Essay, "Reconstruction," undated
2 41 Lecture, Action and Speech, undated
(Partially scanned)
2 42 Lecture, Appreciation and Style, undated
(Partially scanned)
2 43 Lecture, Industrial Arts, undated
(Partially scanned)
2 44-45 Lecture, "Inspiration and Aspiration," circa 1920
(2 folders; partially scanned)
2 46 Lecture, Late Nineteenth-century French Artists, undated
2 47 Lecture, "Presentation," undated
2 48-56 Notebooks, 1917-1922, undated
(9 folders)
Box Folder
3 1 Notebooks, undated
3 2 Notes, Benjamin Franklin Monument, undated
3 3 Notes, New Canaan, undated
3 4-5 Notes, School of American Sculpture, circa 1919-1921
(2 folders; partially scanned)
3 6 Notes, Silvermine Neighbors Club, undated
(Partially scanned)
3 7-8 Notes, Miscellaneous, undated
(2 folders; not scanned)
3 9-14 Address Books, circa 1917-1918, undated
(6 folders)
3 15 Address Lists, undated

4.2: Writings and Notes by Others, 1871-1983, undated
(Not scanned)

Box Folder
3 16 Emma Borglum, "An Account of the Life of Solon Borglum and the Experience at Crow Creek," undated
3 17 Emma Borglum, "An Account of the Life of Solon H. Borglum," undated
3 18 Emma Borglum, Essay on French Literature, undated
3 19 Emma Borglum, Recipe Notes, undated
3 20 Emma Borglum, Recollections of Crow Creek, undated
3 21 Emma Borglum, Recollections of Crow Creek (in French), undated
3 22 A. Mervyn Davies, Lecture on Jacob Leisler, undated
3 23 Monica Borglum Davies, "The Command of Got to Retreat," undated
3 24 Monica Borglum Davies, Recollections of Solon Borglum, 1967, undated
3 25 Josephine Sofio, Recollections of the Borglum Family, 1979, 1983
3 26 Paul E. Vignal, Notebook of Quotations, 1871-1901
3 27 Address List, Metropolitan Museum of Art, 1922
3 28 Address Lists, Miscellaneous, 1923, undated
3 29-30 Guest Books, Silvermine Group of Artists Meetings, circa 1910-1921
(2 folders)
3 31 Miscellaneous Writings, 1925, undated

Series 5: Solon Borglum Biography, 1870-1975, undated
(Box 3-8; 5.3 linear feet; Not Scanned)

This series contains materials compiled or written by Monica Borglum Davies and her husband A. Mervyn Davies for the biography, Solon H. Borglum "A Man Who Stands Alone" (Pequot Press, 1974). Found here are numerous files of information gathered during the research process, including photocopies of materials such as correspondence, and documents from Solon's time in the military. Users should note that some of the photocopies of correspondence may overlap with material found in Family and General Correspondence (Series 2 and 3), however, many letters in this series include transcripts. Research files and notes also include lists of photographs, artwork, and students, as well as numerous loose notes, note cards and notebooks created in the process of writing the book. Also found in this series are other writings by Monica and A. Mervyn Davies giving background information and a synopsis of the biography project.

The bulk of this series consists of heavily edited drafts of the biography. One subseries contains drafts of each section of the book. Researchers should note that many draft chapters do not correspond to or have different titles from the chapters in the published version. Another subseries includes draft manuscripts. All of the manuscripts are for the Borglum biography, but the authors were using various titles, including "A Clear Spirit," and "A Quiet Victory." Many drafts are incomplete and untitled, and the end of the series contains numbered loose pages from drafts and miscellaneous draft edits and notes, all arranged in their original order. Also found are two edited book proofs.

None of the documents in this series have been digitized.

The Solon Borglum Biography series is arranged into 4 subseries:

5.1: Research Files and Notes, 1870-1975

Box Folder
3 32 Descriptions of Works of Art, undated
3 33 Lists of Students and Acquaintences, undated
3 34 Lists of Photographs of Artwork, undated
3 35 Lists of Works of Art, 1972, undated
3 36-38 Note Cards, undated
(3 folders)
3 39-47 Research Notes, undated
(9 folders)
3 48-49 Research Notebooks, circa 1972, undated
(2 folders)
3 50-51 Family Correspondence, Photocopies and Transcripts, 1870-1909
(2 folders)
Box Folder
4 1-3 Family Correspondence, Photocopies and Transcripts, 1916-1962, undated
(3 folders)
4 4-5 General Correspondence, Photocopies and Transcripts, 1907-1954
(2 folders)
4 6 American Expeditionary Forces Documents, Photocopies, 1918-1920
4 7-8 Documents from the Library of Congress, Photocopies, 1903-1965, undated
(2 folders)
4 9 Miscellaneous Documents, Photocopies, 1975, undated
4 10 Microfilm, The Hegsted Family, 1959
4 11 Microfilm, Incomplete Collection of Newspaper Clippings, 1959

5.2: Other Writings, undated

Box Folder
4 12 "The Story of Project," undated
4 13 "The Two Sculptors Gutzon and Solon Borglum: A Continuing Confusion," undated
4 14 Synopsis of Biography, undated

5.3: Book Section Drafts, 1972-1973, undated

Box Folder
4 15 Title Page, 1973, undated
4 16 Table of Contents, undated
4 17 List of Illustrations, undated
4 18 Author's Note, undated
4 19 Preface, undated
4 20-21 Forward, undated
(2 folders)
4 22-23 Introduction, undated
(2 folders)
4 24-25 Acknowledgements, undated
(2 folders)
4 26-32 Chapter I, 1972, undated
(7 folders)
4 33-37 Chapter II, undated
(5 folders)
4 38-39 Chapter III, undated
(2 folders)
Box Folder
5 1-4 Chapter IV, undated
(4 folders)
5 5-6 Chapter V, undated
(2 folders)
5 7-9 Chapter VI, undated
(3 folders)
5 10-12 Chapter VII, undated
(3 folders)
5 13-15 Chapter VIII, undated
(3 folders)
5 16-22 Chapter IX, 1972, undated
(7 folders)
5 23-27 Chapter X, undated
(5 folders)
5 28-31 Chapter XI, undated
(4 folders)
5 32-34 Chapter XII, undated
(3 folders)
5 35-37 Chapter XIII, undated
(3 folders)
5 38-39 Chapter XIV, undated
(2 folders)
5 40 Chapter XV, undated
Box Folder
6 1 Chapter XVI, undated
6 2 Chapter XVII, undated
6 3 Chapter XVIII, undated
6 4 Chapter XIX, undated
6 5 Chapter XX, undated
6 6 Epilogue, undated
6 7 Chronology, undated
6 8-9 References and Bibliography, undated
(2 folders)
6 10 Index, undated
6 11-12 Gutzon Borglum Chapter, undated
(2 folders)

5.4: Draft Manuscripts, 1970-1974, undated

Box Folder
6 13-15 "Art Upon a Larger Scale," undated
(3 folders)
6 16-17 "Art Upon a Larger Scale" Second Version, 1972
(2 folders)
6 18-19 "Borglum the Sculptor," undated
(2 folders)
6 20 "The Borglum Story," Incomplete, undated
6 21-22 "A Clear Spirit," Incomplete, undated
(2 folders)
6 23 "A Quiet Victory," Synopsis and Select Chapters, circa 1972
6 24 "A Quiet Victory," 1972
6 25-28 "Solon H. Borglum: A Man Who Stands Alone," 1973
(4 folders)
6 29 "Solon Hannibal Borglum," undated
Box Folder
7 1-5 "The Story of Two Brothers," Incomplete, undated
(5 folders)
7 6 Untitled Draft, undated
7 7-14 Untitle and Incomplete Drafts, 1970-1971, undated
(8 folders)
7 15-28 Numbered Loose Pages from Drafts, undated
(14 folders)
Box Folder
8 1-21 Miscellaneous Draft Edits and Notes, 1974, undated
(21 folders)
8 22 Book Proof, circa 1973
8 23 Book Proof, Second Copy, 1974

Series 6: Financial and Business Records, 1898-1998, undated
(Box 8, 13; 0.2 linear feet)

Financial and business records contain materials documenting Solon Borglum's professional work and legacy. Financial materials include bank account books, receipts and statements, ledgers, and price lists, as well as the financial notes and ledger for the Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund. Also found is a financial proposal for the 1905 Lewis and Clark Centennial, and an account book for the posthumous production and sales of Borglum's book Sound Construction. Business materials include contracts for sculpture projects, and copyright documentation for Sound Construction. Folders are arranged alphabetically by type of material.

Box Folder
8 24 Account Book for Sound Construction, 1923-1924
(Not scanned)
8 25 Bank Account Books, 1903-1911, 1918
(Not scanned)
8 26 Contracts for Sculpture Projects, 1906, 1910, undated
8 27 Copyright Documentation for Sound Construction, 1924
(Not scanned)
8 28 Financial Notes, Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund, 1965-1980, undated
(Not scanned)
8 29 Financial Proposal, Lewis and Clark Centennial Project, circa 1905
8 30 Ledger, Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund, 1961-1998
(See Box 13, F2; not scanned)
8 31-32 Ledgers, 1898-1922
(2 folders; not scanned)
8 33 Legal Documents, Solon Borglum Estate, 1922
(Not scanned)
8 34 Price Lists, 1924, undated
8 35 Receipts and Statements, 1903-1972, undated
(Not scanned)
Box Folder
13 (sol) 2 Ledger, Solon H. Borglum Sculpture and Education Fund, 1961-1998
(See Box 8, F30; not scanned)

Series 7: Printed Material, 1879-2002, undated
(Box 9, 13-14; 1.1 linear feet)

This series contains material on Solon Borglum's career and artwork, primarily posthumous exhibit materials and publications. Most of this material was collected by Solon's daughter Monica Borglum Davies and includes not only material on Solon, but also documents about Gutzon, Solon's assistant Paul Manship, and the Silvermine Group of Artists. Included are auction catalogs, exhibition announcements, catalogs, brochures, event programs, and informational booklets. Also found are numerous news and magazine clippings spanning over 120 years, magazines featuring large articles on Solon, newletters, press releases, reports, and other publications as well as published images of Solon and reproductions of his artwork. This series also contains copies of the art textbook Solon wrote, Sound Construction, as well as the Supplement for this work published at the same time.

Box Folder
9 1 Auction Catalogs, 1964, 1974, 1983, 1988
(partially scanned)
9 2 Brochures, 1900, 1921, 1961-1972, undated
(not scanned)
9 3 Brochures, School of American Sculpture, 1921-1922
9 4-11 Clippings, Solon Borglum, 1897-1999, undated
(8 folders)
9 12-13 Clippings, Gutzon Borglum, 1889-1986, undated
(2 folders; not scanned)
9 14-15 Clippings, Silvermine Group of Artists, 1910-2002, undated
(2 folders)
9 16-23 Clippings, Miscellaneous, 1879-2001, undated
(8 folders; not scanned)
9 24 Essay, Phil Kovinick, "South Dakota's 'Other' Borglum," undated
(not scanned)
9 25 Event Programs, 1905, 1907
9 26 Exhibition Announcements, Silvermine Group of Artists, 1915-1918
9 27 Exhibition Catalog, Architectural Exhibition of the Cleveland Architectural Club, 1909
9 28 Exhibition Catalogs, Gutzon Borglum, 1905, 1914
(not scanned)
9 29 Exhibition Catalogs, Paul Manship, 1958
(not scanned)
9 30 Exhibition Catalogs, Silvermine Guild of Artists, 1910, 1946, 1956
9 31 Exhibition Catalogs, Solon H. Borglum, 1966-1977, undated
9 32 German Army Songbook, 1897
(not scanned)
9 33 Images of Solon Borglum, undated
(not scanned)
9 34 Informational Booklets, undated
(not scanned)
9 35 Magazine, The Century, vol. 99, no. 2, 1919
9 36 Magazine, Illustrated American, vol. 5, no. 50, 1891
(not scanned)
9 37 Magazine, The Kennedy Quarterly, 1962, 1965, 1978
9 38 Magazines, Miscellaneous, 1922, 1976, 1999
(partially scanned)
9 39 Map of Kensico Cemetery, undated
(See Box 13, F3; not scanned)
9 40 Newsletters, 1972, 1974, 1982
(not scanned)
9 41 Newspaper, Decatur-Dekalb News, "Stone Mountain Dedication Special Edition," 1970
(See Box 13, F4; not scanned)
9 42 Postcards, undated
(not scanned)
9 43 Press Releases, Stone Mountain Memorial Dedication, 1970
(not scanned)
9 44 Publication, "Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Silvermine Guild of Artists," 1972
(See Box 13, F5)
9 45 Publication, Historical Biography and Libretto of the Indian Congress, 1901
(See Box 13, F6; not scanned)
9 46 Publication, La Defense De Verdun, 1916
(See Box 13, F7; not scanned)
9 47 Report of the American E. F. Art Training Centre, 1919
9 48 Report of the Gordon Monument Commission, 1907
(not scanned)
9 49-50 Reproductions of Artwork by Solon Borglum, undated
(2 folders; see also Box 13, F8; not scanned)
9 51 Reproductions of Artwork by Others, 1891, 1875, undated
(not scanned)
9 52 Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, 1923
(See Box 14; not scanned)
9 53 Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, unbound version, 1923
(2 copies; see Box 14)
9 54 Supplement to Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, 1923
(See Box 14; not scanned)
9 55 Supplement to Sound Construction by Solon Borglum, unbound version, 1923
(See Box 14)
9 56 Miscellaneous Printed Items, 1914-1974
(not scanned)
Box Folder
13 (sol) 3 Map of Kensico Cemetery, undated
(See Box 9, F39; not scanned)
13 (sol) 4 Newspaper, Decatur-Dekalb News, "Stone Mountain Dedication Special Edition," 1970
(See Box 9, F41; not scanned)
13 (sol) 5 Publication, "Celebrating the 50th Anniversary of the Silvermine Guild of Artists," 1972
(See Box 9, F44)
13 (sol) 6 Publication, Historical Biography and Libretto of the Indian Congress, 1901
(See Box 9, F45; not scanned)
13 (sol) 7 Publication, La Defense De Verdun, 1916
(See Box 9, F46; not scanned)
13 (sol) 8 Reproductions of Artwork by Solon Borglum, undated
(See also Box 9, F49-50; not scanned)
14 (sol) Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, 1923
(See Box 9, F52; not scanned)
14 (sol) Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, unbound version, 1923
(2 copies; see Box 9, F53)
14 (sol) Supplement to Sound Construction by Solon H. Borglum, 1923
(See Box 9, F54; not scanned)
14 (sol) Supplement to Sound Construction by Solon Borglum, unbound version, 1923
(See Box 9, F55)

Series 8: Photographs, 1864-1986
(Box 9-13, MGP 1, MGP 3, OV 15-16; 2.0 linear feet)

Found here are family and personal photographs, and numerous photographs of artwork by Solon Borglum. The bulk of the family and personal photographs date from Solon's adult life and include images of Solon in various settings, such as formal portraits taken throughout his career, photographs of him with his artwork, as a student and teacher in sculpture class, in Paris during his military service, with his family and friends at his farm, Rocky Ranch, and of Solon and Emma at the Crow Creek Reservation. Also found are Borglum family portraits, individual portraits of many family members including Solon's brothers Gutzon and August, and his parents James and Ida, as well as group portraits of the whole family. This subseries also includes photographs of Emma, Monica, her daughter Gwynneth, and Emma's brother Paul Vignal and his wife. Other personal photographs in this series are images of Solon at ranches and as a Boy Scout troop leader, exteriors and interiors of his various studios and residences, photos from an exhibition at the Union League Club in New York, and other miscellaneous and unidentified portraits and snapshots.

Photographs of Artwork include files on individual works of art by Solon Borglum, as well as files for his various types of artwork, such as animal sculptures, portrait busts, and monuments and installations. Many of the files may include images of the artwork at the studio, as well as being unveiled or installed in public. Folders are arranged alphabetically by title of work, followed by categories of artwork and artwork by others. Photographs in this subseries have not been digitized.

The Photographs series is arranged into 3 subseries. Glass plate negatives are housed separately and closed to researchers.

8.1: Family and Personal Photographs, 1864-1986, undated

Box Folder
9 57-58 Solon Borglum Portraits, circa 1899-1921
(2 folders)
9 59 Solon Borglum in Sculpture Class, 1895-1897, undated
9 60-61 Solon Borglum with Works of Art, circa 1896-1918
(2 folders)
9 62-63 Solon Borglum in the American Expeditionary Forces, 1918-1919
(2 folders)
9 64 Solon Borglum at the A. E. F. School of Fine Arts, 1918-1919
9 65 Solon Borglum's Funeral, 1922
(See Box 13, F9)
Box Folder
10 1 Solon Borglum with Friends and Family, undated
10 2-3 Borglum Family Portraits, 1864, 1883-1904, undated
(2 folders)
10 4-6 Solon Borglum and Family at Rocky Ranch, 1906-1929, undated
(3 folders)
10 7 Solon Borglum and Family Dressed in Costume, undated
10 8 Photo Album, Solon Borglum Family, 1907
10 9 Photo Album, Monica Borglum Davies, 1910-1920, undated
10 10-11 August Borglum and Family, 1896, 1904, 1905, undated
(2 folders)
10 12 Gutzon Borglum, undated
10 13 Emma Borglum, undated
10 14 Monica Borglum Davies, circa 1904, 1986, undated
10 15 Gwynneth Davies Kelly, undated
10 16-18 Paul Vignal and Wife Elizabeth, circa 1890-1920, undated
(3 folders)
10 19 Boy Scout Troop, circa 1911
10 20 Friends of Solon Borglum, undated
10 21 Ranches in California and Nebraska, circa 1883-1893
10 22 Solon Borglum Residences, 1894-1908
10 23 Solon Borglum Studios, 1908, undated
10 24-25 Native American and Crow Creek Reservation, circa 1899
(2 folders; see also Box 13, F10)
10 26 B.N.L. Co. Sawmill and Dam, undated
(Not scanned)
10 27 Stone Mountain, undated
(See Box 13, F11; not scanned)
10 28 Exhibition at Union League Club, New York City, 1924
10 29 Animals, undated
(Not scanned)
10 30-31 Portraits, unidentified, undated
(2 folders; not scanned)
10 32 Miscellaneous, 1864-1909, undated
(Not scanned)
10 33 Miscellaneous, unidentified, undated
(Not scanned)
Box Folder
13 (sol) 9 Solon Borglum's Funeral, 1922
(See Box 9, F65)
13 (sol) 10 Native Americans and Crow Creek Reservation, circa 1899
(See Box 10, F24-25)
13 (sol) 11 Stone Mountain, undated
(See Box 10, F27; not scanned)

8.2: Photographs of Artwork, 1895-1967, undated
(Not scanned)

Box Folder
10 34 "Aspiration," 1922
10 35 "The Bells of History,," undated
10 36 "The Blizzard," undated
10 37 "Boy With Fish" Fountain, undated
10 38 "Bronchos," undated
10 39 "Bronchos Frightened by Saddle,," undated
10 40 "Bucking Broncho," 1900
(See also Box 13, F12)
10 41 "Buffalo," 1900, undated
10 42 "The Bull Fight," undated
10 43 "Burial on the Plains," circa 1902, undated
(See also Box 13, F13)
10 44 "Command of God to Retreat," undated
10 45 "The Cowboy at Rest," 1903
(See also OV 15)
10 46 "Dancing Horse," circa 1900
10 47 General John B. Gordon Memorial, undated
(See also OV 15)
10 48 Giles A. Smith Monument, undated
10 49 Grant's Memorial, Model, undated
10 50 "The Heavens," 1915, undated
10 51 "Horse Pawing a Dead Horse," undated
10 52 "Indian Child Being Sent to School," undated
10 53 "The Intelligent Broncho," undated
10 54 Jacob Leisler Monument, undated
10 55 Joseph A. Mower Monument, undated
10 56 "Lassoing Wild Horses,," 1897, undated
10 57 "The Last Roundup," circa 1902, undated
10 58 "The Little Lady of the Dew" ("The Waters"), 1920, 1934, undated
10 59 "Monica," circa 1909, 1967, undated
10 60 "On the Border of Whiteman's Land," undated
10 61 "One in a Thousand," circa 1915
10 62 "Our Slave," undated
10 63 "Paul," undated
10 64 "The Pioneer," undated
(See also OV 15)
10 65 "The Prayer," undated
10 66 "Private Jones," 1960, undated
10 67-68 "Rough Rider, Bucky O'Neill Monument," circa 1906, undated
(2 folders; see also OV 15)
10 69 "Sioux Indian Buffalo Dance," undated
(See also OV 15)
Box Folder
11 (hol) 1 "Snowdrift," undated
(See also OV 15)
11 (hol) 2 "The Spirit of Death," undated
11 (hol) 3 "The Stampede of Wild Horses," 1899
11 (hol) 4 "Steps Toward Civilization," 1904
11 (hol) 5 "Tamed," undated
(See also Box 13, F14)
11 (hol) 6 Truman J. Backus Memorial, 1909, undated
11 (hol) 7 "Washington 1753," undated
11 (hol) 8 William Sody Smith Monument, undated
11 (hol) 9 "Winter," circa 1898, undated
11 (hol) 10 Animal Sculptures, undated
11 (hol) 11 Bell Sculptures, undated
11 (hol) 12 Details of Unidentified Sculptures, undated
11 (hol) 13 Drawings, undated
11 (hol) 14 Figure Sculptures, undated
11 (hol) 15 Horse and Person Sculptures, undated
11 (hol) 16 Models for Sculpture Projects, undated
(See also OV 15)
11 (hol) 16 Monuments and Installations, 1901, 1903, undated
11 (hol) 18 Paintings, 1895, 1897, undated
11 (hol) 19 Portrait Busts, 1905, 1923, undated
(See also OV 15)
11 (hol) 20 Wood Carvings, undated
11 (hol) 21 Miscellaneous Sculptures, circa 1903, 1909, undated
(See also Box 13, F15 and OV 16)
11 (hol) 22-28 Photo Albums of Artwork, circa 1899, undated
(7 folders)
11 (hol) 29 Solon H. Borglum Memorial Window by D. Putnam Brinley, circa 1922
Box Folder
12 (pam) 1 Artwork by Gutzon Borglum, 1904, 1907, undated
12 (pam) 2 Artwork by Others, 1898, 1919, 1923, undated
Box Folder
13 (sol) 12 "Bucking Broncho," 1900
(See also Box 10, F40)
13 (sol) 13 "Burial on the Plains," circa 1902, undated
(See also Box 10, F43)
13 (sol) 14 "Tamed," undated
(See also Box 11, F5)
13 (sol) 15 Miscellaneous Sculptures, 1909, undated
(See also Box 11, F21)
OV 15 "The Cowboy at Rest," 1903
(See also Box 10, F45)
OV 15 General John B. Gordon Memorial, undated
(See also Box 10, F47)
OV 15 "The Pioneer," undated
(See also Box 10, F64)
OV 15 "Rough Rider, Bucky O'Neill Monument," circa 1906, undated
(See also Box 10, F67-68)
OV 15 "Sioux Indian Buffalo Dance," undated
(See also Box 10, F69)
OV 15 "Snowdrift," undated
(See also Box 11, F1)
OV 15 Models for Sculpture Projects, undated
(See also Box 11, F16)
OV 15 Portrait Busts, 1905, 1923, undated
(See also Box 11, F19)
OV 16 Miscellaneous Sculptures, undated
(See also Box 11, F21)

8.3: Negatives, Slides, and Transparencies, undated
(Not scanned)

Box Folder
12 (pam) 3 Glass Plate Negatives, General John B. Gordon Memorial, undated
(4 glass plate negatives housed in MGP 1)
12 (pam) 4 Glass Plate Negative of Portrait Bust, undated
(1 glass plate negative housed in MGP 3)
12 (pam) 5 Negatives, Monica Borglum Davies, undated
12 (pam) 6 Negative of Unidentified People, undated
12 (pam) 7 Negatives of Artwork, undated
12 (pam) 8 Slides, undated
12 (pam) 9 Transparencies of Solon Borglum Paintings, undated
MGP 1 Glass Plate Negatives
4 Glass negatives
MGP 3 Glass Plate Negatives
1 Glass negative

Series 9: Artwork, 1890-1921, undated
(Box 12-13; 0.3 linear feet)

Artwork contains many sketches by Solon Borglum, such as figure sketches for some of his sculptural works and for his book Sound Construction, as well as sketches he made on tracing paper, mostly of architectural design elements. This series also contains Emma Borglum's drawings of jewelry designs and sketches by Gutzon Borglum, including a sketch of Solon, possibly drawn while they were working together in 1894. Also found are original etchings for Silvermine Group of Artists Exhibition Announcements, a large illuminated poem made for Solon and Emma at the time of their marriage by writer William Theodore Peters, a military cartoon, and other artwork by unidentified artists. The folder of miscellaneous artwork by others includes etchings by artists Robert Fulton Logan and Frank Sohn.

Box Folder
12 (pam) 10 Solon Borglum, Figure Sketches, undated
(See also Box 13, F16)
12 (pam) 11 Solon Borglum, Tracing Paper Sketches, undated
(See also Box 13, F17)
12 (pam) 12-14 Solon Borglum, Miscellaneous Sketches, 1890-1891, 1919, 1921, undated
(3 folders; see also Box 13, F18)
12 (pam) 15 Emma Borglum, Jewelry Designs, 1901, undated
(Not scanned)
12 (pam) 16 Gutzon Borglum, Sketches, 1894, 1900, undated
12 (pam) 17 William Theodore Peters, "The Betrothal," 1898
(See Box 13, F19)
12 (pam) 18 Silvermine Group of Artists, Etchings for Exhibition Announcements, 1913, undated
12 (pam) 19 Unidentified Artist, Military Cartoon, circa 1918
(See Box 13, F20; not scanned)
12 (pam) 20-21 Miscellaneous Artwork by Others, 1919, undated
(2 folders)
12 (pam) 22 Miscellaneous Artwork by Others, unidentified, 1919, undated
(Not scanned)
Box Folder
13 (sol) 16 Solon Borglum, Figure Sketches, undated
(See also Box 12, F10)
13 (sol) 17 Solon Borglum, Tracing Paper Sketches, undated
(See also Box 12, F11)
13 (sol) 18 Solon Borglum, Miscellaneous Sketches, 1890-1891, 1919, 1921, undated
(See also Box 12, F12-14)
13 (sol) 19 William Theodore Peters, "The Betrothal," 1898
(See Box 12, F17)
13 (sol) 20 Unidentified Artist, Military Cartoon, circa 1918
(See Box 12, F19; not scanned)