A Finding Aid to the Henry Varnum Poor Papers,
1873-2001, bulk 1904-1970, in the Archives of American Art, by Catherine S. Gaines
Table of Contents:
- Biographical Information
- Overview of the Collection
- How to Use the Collection
- Detailed Description and Container Inventory
Henry Varnum Poor (1888-1970), best known as a potter and ceramic artist, was also an architect, painter, muralist, designer, educator and writer who lived and worked in New City, New York.
A native of Chapman, Kansas, Henry Varnum Poor moved with his family to Kansas City when his grain merchant father became a member of the Kansas Board of Trade. From a young age he showed artistic talent and spent as much time as possible - including school hours - drawing. When a school supervisor suggested that Henry leave school to study at the Art Institute of Chicago, the family disagreed. Instead, he enrolled in the Kansas City Manual Training High School where he delighted in learning skills such as carpentry, forge work, and mechanical drawing. In 1905, he moved with his older brother and sister to Palo Alto, California and completed high school there. Because Poor was expected to join the family business, he enrolled at Stanford University as an economics major, but much to his father's disappointment and displeasure, soon left the economics department and became an art major.
Immediately after graduation in 1910, Poor and his major professor at Stanford, Arthur B. Clark, took a summer bicycling tour to look at art in London, France, Italy, and Holland. Poor had saved enough money to remain in London after the summer was over. He enrolled in the Slade School of Art and also studied under Walter Sickert at the London County Council Night School. After seeing an exhibition of Post-Impressionism at the Grafton Galleries in London, Poor was so impressed that he went to Paris and enrolled in the Académie Julian. While in Paris Poor met Clifford Addams, a former apprentice of Whistler; soon he was working in Addams' studio learning Whistler's palette and techniques.
In the fall of 1911, Poor returned to Stanford University's art department on a one-year teaching assignment. During that academic year, his first one-man show was held at the university's Old Studio gallery. He married Lena Wiltz and moved back to Kansas to manage the family farm and prepare for another exhibition. Their daughter, Josephine Lydia Poor, was born the following year. Poor returned to Stanford in September 1913 as assistant professor of grahic arts, remaining until the department closed three years later. During this period, Poor began to exhibit more frequently in group shows in other areas of the country, and had his first solo exhibition at a commercial gallery (Helgesen Gallery, San Francisco). In 1916, Poor joined the faculty of the San Francisco Art Association. He and his wife separated in 1917 and were divorced the following year. Poor began sharing his San Francisco studio with Marion Dorn.
During World War I, Poor was drafted into the U. S. Army, and in 1918 went to France with the 115th Regiment of Engineers. He spent his spare time drawing; soon officers were commissioning portraits, and Poor was appointed the regimental artist. He also served as an interpreter for his company. Discharged from the Army in early 1919, Poor spent the spring painting in Paris. He then returned to San Francisco and married Marion Dorn.
Once Poor realized that earning a living as a painter would be extremely difficult in California, he and his new wife moved to New York in the autumn of 1919. They were looking for a place to live when influential book and art dealer Mary Mowbray-Clarke of the Sunwise Turn Bookshop in Manhattan suggested New City in Rockland County, New York as good place for artists. In January of 1920, the Poors purchased property on South Mountain Road in New City. The skills he acquired at the Kansas City Manual Training High School were of immediate use as Poor designed and constructed "Crow House" with the assistance of a local teenager. Influenced by the farmhouses he had seen in France, it was made of local sandstone and featured steep gables, rough plaster, chestnut beams and floors, and incorporated many hand-crafted details. Poor designed and built most of their furniture, too. Before the end of the year, he and Marion were able to move into the house, though it remained a work in progress for many years. Additions were constructed. Over time, gardens were designed and planted, and outbuildings - a kiln and pottery, work room, garage, and new studio - appeared on the property.
In 1925, two years after his divorce from Marion Dorn, Poor married Bessie Freedman Breuer (1893-1975), an editor, short story writer, and novelist. Soon after, he adopted her young daughter, Anne (1918-2002), an artist who served as his assistant on many important mural commissions. Their son, Peter (b. 1926) became a television producer. Crow House remained in the family until its sale in 2006. In order to prevent its demolition, Crow House was then purchased by the neighboring town of Ramapo, New York in 2007.
Between 1935 and 1966 Poor designed and oversaw construction of a number of houses, several of them situated not far from Crow House on South Mountain Road. Poor's designs, noted for their simplicity, featured modern materials and incorporated his ceramic tiles. Among his important commissions were houses for Maxwell Anderson, Jules Billig, Milton Caniff, MacDonald Deming, and John Houseman.
Poor's first exhibition of paintings in New York City was at Kevorkian Galleries in 1920, and sales were so disappointing that he turned his attention to ceramics. His first pottery show, held at Bel Maison Gallery in Wanamaker's department store in 1921, was very successful. He quickly developed a wide reputation, participated in shows throughout the country, and won awards. He was a founder of the short-lived American Designers' Gallery, and the tile bathroom he showed at the group's first exposition was critically acclaimed. Poor was represented by Montross Gallery as both a painter and potter. When Montross Gallery closed upon its owner's death in 1932, Poor moved to the Frank K. M. Rehn Gallery.
Even though Poor's pottery and ceramic work was in the forefront, he continued to paint. His work was acquired by a number of museums, and the Limited Editions Club commissioned him to illustrate Ethan Frome, The Scarlet Letter, and The Call of the Wild.
Poor's first work in true fresco was shown in a 1932 mural exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art. Between 1935 and 1949 he was commissioned to produce several murals in fresco for Section of Fine Arts projects at the Department of Justice and the Department of the Interior, The Land Grant Frescoes at Pennsylvania State College, and a mural for the Louisville Courier-Journal. Ceramic tile mural commissions included: the Klingenstein Pavilion, Mt. Sinai Hospital, New York City; Travelers Insurance Co., Boston; the Fresno Post Office, California; and Hillson Memorial Gallery, Deerfield Academy, Deerfield, Mass.
As a member of the War Artists' Unit, Poor was a "war correspondent" with the rank of major in World War II, and for several months in 1943 was stationed in Alaska. An Artist Sees Alaska, drawing on Poor's observations and experiences, was published in 1945. A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality, his second book, was published in 1958. It remains a standard text on the subject. While on the faculty of Columbia University in the 1950s, Poor and other artists opposed to the growing influence of Abstract Expressionism formed the Reality Group with Poor the head of its editorial committee. Their magazine, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, first appeared in 1953 featuring "Painting is Being Talked to Death" by Poor as its lead article. Two more issues were published in 1954 and 1955.
Along with Willard Cummings, Sidney Simon, and Charles Cuttler, in 1946 Henry Varnum Poor helped to establish the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture in Skowhegan, Maine. He served as its first president. Poor and his daughter, Anne, were active members of the Board of Trustees and were instructors for many years. The summer of 1961 was Henry Varnum Poor's last as a full-time teacher, though he continued to spend summers at Skowhegan.
Henry Varnum Poor exhibited widely and received many awards, among them prizes at the Carnegie Institute, Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts, Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, and the Architectural League of New York. Poor was appointed to the United States Commission of Fine Arts by President Roosevelt in 1941 and served a five year term. He was elected a member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters in 1943. The National Academy of Design named him an Associate Artist in 1954 and an Academician in 1963. He became a trustee of the American Craftsman's Council in 1956. The work of Henry Vernum Poor is represented in the permanent collections of many American museums including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Brooklyn Museum, Addison Gallery of American Art, and Syracuse Museum of Fine Arts.
Henry Varnum Poor died at home in New City, New York, December 8, 1970.
Overview of the Collection
Scope and Contents
The Henry Varnum Poor papers measure 11.1 linear feet and are dated 1873-2001, with the bulk from the period 1904-1970. Correspondence, writings, artwork, printed material and photographs document his work as a painter, muralist, ceramic artist and potter, architect, designer, writer, war artist, educator and a co-founder of the Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture. Also found is extensive information about the design and construction of Crow House, his home in New City, New York, commissions for other architectural projects, and his personal life.
Henry Varnum Poor's correspondence documents his personal life, his professional activities in a number of fields. and his artwork in several media. Correspondents include family and friends, among them: George Biddle, Charles Burchfield, John Ciardi, Marion V. Dorn (who became his second wife), Philip Evergood, Lewis Mumford, John Steinbeck, David Smith, and Mrs. John Work (Alice) Garrett. Other correspondents are individuals representing galleries, museums, schools, and organizations. There is fan mail from readers of his books, letters from former students and colleagues, as well as friends and acquaintances from his military service and travels.
Family correspondence consists mainly of incoming letters addressed to Albert J. and Josephine Poor from their son Henry about his education, travels, World War I experiences, and his teaching and painting career. Scattered throughout are letters from their daughter-in-law Bessie Breuer Poor, and grandchildren Anne and Peter. Correspondence between Albert and Josephine Poor was written in 1911 while she was traveling in Europe with Henry. Also found are letters from other relatives and friends. A few letters are addressed to Lena Wiltz, Henry Varnum Poor's first wife. After the death of Josephine Poor circa 1940, Poor's letters are addressed to his sister Eva and her husband Herbert Stone. Josephine Poor's relatives, the Graham family, are represented by a small number of 19th century letters.
Among the writings by Henry Varnum Poor are manuscripts of his two published books. Also found are the text of "Painting is Being Talked to Death," published in the first issue of Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, April 1953, and manuscripts of other articles. Of particular interest are Poor's notes from his studies in London and Paris, including: "Drawing Ideas from Slade School and Walter Sickert in London," "The Whistler Palette and Notes Gathered from [Clifford] Addams," "Grafton Galleries Post-Impressionists." Writings by others include M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston's account of Poor rescuing an Eskimo, and Bessie Breuer Poor's recollections of The Montross Gallery.
Subject files include: Advisory Committee on Art, American Designers' Gallery, Inc., William Benton, Harold Dickson, Reality: A Journal of Artists' Opinions, Sales, Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture, and War Posters.
Artwork by Henry Varnum Poor consists mainly of drawings and sketches - loose and in 45 sketchbooks - that include studies for paintings, murals, and pottery. Also found is work done in France, 1918-1919, and produced while a war correspondent in Alaska in 1943. There are commissioned illustrations and some intended for his monograph, A Book of Pottery: From Mud to Immortality. Also found are a small number of watercolors and prints. Work by other artists consist of Anne Poor's drawings of her father's hands used for the Lincoln figure in The Land Grant Frescoes and interior views of Crow House by Ernest Watson.
Documentation of Poor's architectural projects consists of drawings and prints relating to houses designed and built for Jules Billing, MacDonald Deming, John Houseman, Burgess Meredith, Isabel Padro, and Elizabeth S. Sargent. Also found is similar material for the new studio Poor built in 1957 on the grounds of Crow House.
Miscellaneous records include family memorabilia and two motion picture films, Painting a True Fresco, and The Land Grant Murals at Pennsylvania State College.
Printed material includes articles about or mentioning Poor, some of his pottery reference books, family history, a catalog of kilns, and the program of a 1949 Pennsylvania State College theater production titled Poor Mr. Varnum. Exhibition catalogs and announcements survive for some of Poor's shows; catalogs of other artists' shows include one for Theodore Czebotar containing an introductory statement by Henry Varnum Poor. Also found is a copy of The Army at War: A Graphic Record by American Artists, for which Poor served as an advisor.
Photographs are of Henry Varnum Poor's architectural work, artwork, people, places, and miscellaneous subjects. This series also contains negatives, slides, and transparencies. Images of architectural work include exterior and interior views of many projects; Poor's home, Crow House, predominates. Photographs of artwork by Poor are of drawings, fresco and ceramic tile murals, paintings, pottery and ceramic art. People appearing in photographs include Henry Varnum Poor, family members, friends, clients, juries, students, and various groups. Among the individuals portrayed are Milton Caniff, Marcel Duchamp, Wharton Esherick, M. R. ("Muktuk") Marston, and Burgess Meredith. Among the family members are Bessie Breuer Poor, Marion Dorn Poor, Anne Poor, Eva Poor, Josephine Graham Poor, Josephine Lydia Poor, Peter Poor, and unidentified relatives. Photographs of places include many illustrating village life in Alaska that were taken by Poor during World War II. Other places recorded are French and California landscapes, and family homes in Kansas. Miscellaneous subjects are exhibition installation views, scenes of Kentucky farms, and a photograph of Poor's notes on glazes.
Arrangement and Series Description
The collection is arranged into 9 series:
- Series 1: Biographical Materials, 1919-1987 (Box 1, OV 18; 0.2 linear ft.)
- Series 2: Correspondence, 1873-1985 (Boxes 1-2; 1.5 linear ft.)
- Series 3: Writings and Notes, circa 1944-1974 (Boxes 2-3; 0.6 linear ft.)
- Series 4: Subject Files, 1928-1975 (Box 3, OV 23; 0.8 linear ft.)
- Series 5: Artwork, circa 1890s-circa 1961 (Boxes 4-6, 9-10, OV 19-22; 3.5 linear ft.)
- Series 6: Architectural Projects, circa 1940-1966 (Box 6, OV 24-26, RD 14-17; 0.7 linear ft.)
- Series 7: Miscellaneous Records, 1882-1967 (Boxes 6, 11; 0.25 linear ft.)
- Series 8: Printed Material, 1881-2001 (Boxes 6-7, 11, OV 27-29; 1.25 linear ft.)
- Series 9: Photographs, 1893-1984 (Boxes 7-8, 12-13; 2.3 linear ft.)
Subjects and Names
This collection is indexed in the online catalog of the Archives of American Art under the following terms:
- Benton, William, 1900-1973
- Caniff, Milton Arthur, 1907-1988
- Dickson, Harold E., 1900-
- Duchamp, Marcel, 1887-1968
- Esherick, Wharton
- Meredith, Burgess, 1907-1997
- Montross Gallery
- Skowhegan School of Painting and Sculpture
- Architects--New York (State)--New York
- Art--Study and teaching
- Artists' studios
- Authors--New York (State)--New York
- Ceramicists--New York (State)--New York
- Designers--New York (State)--New York
- Educators--New York (State)--New York
- Muralists--New York (State)--New York
- Painters--New York (State)--New York
- Pottery--New York (State)--New York
- World War, 1914-1918
Types of Materials:
- Motion pictures (visual works)
- Biddle, George, 1885-1973
- Burchfield, Charles Ephraim, 1893-1967
- Ciardi, John, 1916-
- Evergood, Philip, 1901-1973
- Garrett, Alice Warder
- Marston, Muktuk
- Mumford, Lewis, 1895-1990
- Smith, David, 1906-1965
- Steinbeck, John, 1902-1968
- Watson, Ernest William, 1884-1969
Gift of Henry Varnum Poor's son, Peter V. Poor, in 2007.
Separated and Related Materials
An oral history interview with Henry Varnum Poor was conducted by Harlan Phillips for the Archives of American Art in 1964.
How the Collection was Processed
The collection was fully processed and a finding aid prepared by Catherine S. Gaines in 2008.
How to Use the Collection
Restrictions on Use
Use of original papers requires an appointment. Use of audiovisual recordings with no duplicate access copy requires advance notice.
Ownership & Literary Rights
The Henry Varnum Poor papers are owned by the Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution. Literary rights as possessed by the donor have been dedicated to public use for research, study, and scholarship. The collection is subject to all copyright laws.
A small potion of this collection is available on 35 mm microfilm reels 644-634 at Archives of American Art offices, and through interlibrary loan. Researchers should note that the arrangement of the papers as described in this finding aid may not reflect the order on microfilm.